Japanese Particles (じょし) Explained

Particles in Japanese are short words that immediately follow a noun, adjective, verb, or sentence. They are used to show the relationship of words in a sentence. There are hundreds of them and they can be extremely frustrating for learners.

I will list my known particles here and update this page as I study more Japanese and learn more about the correct use of particles.

Usage of が

が introduces the subject of a sentence.

じゅぎょう 始まります。 - The class begins.

が can also show likes, dislikes or capability.

私は とんかつ すきです。 – As for me, I like tonkatsu.

母は たまねぎ すきではありません。- As for my mother, (she) doesn’t like onions.

兄は 日本語 へたです。 – As for my older brother, (he) is bad at Japanese.


can show something mentioned for the first time.

 出ました。


Usage of は

は highlights the word as the main topic of the sentence after it has been shared.

あの せんせい 私たちの 先生です。- That teacher over there is our teacher. [ is introducing the fact]

私たちの 先生 きびしいです。 – As for our teacher (he/she) is strict. [ is introducing the teacher (先生 – sensei) as the main topic of the sentence]

は can be placed after words that specify time or place.

去年 三年生でした。 – Last year (I) was a third year student.

can also specify the Topic of the whole sentence.

 手が 大きいです。- My older brother has big hands.

is used in place of を when the object of the verb is the topic.

スミス先生が 英語を 教えます。 – Smith sensei teaches English.

Changes to:

英語 スミス先生が 教えます。 – As for English, Smith sensei teaches (it).

MSFS2020 Garmin G1000 Quick Reference Guide

Many of us will begin our Microsoft Flight Sim journey (yes it is a journey for some of us :D) using the Garmin G1000 glass cockpit in the Cessna 172 and when I began using it I have to admit to being a little overwhelmed by the options and buttons available. It took me quite a while to figure out my way around and now that I am more familiar with using it, my enjoyment of the simulator has increased exponentially.

With that in mind, I wanted to write a guide to help newer simulator pilots get familiar with the G1000 and hopefully increase their enjoyment of Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 at the same time. The premise is for this to be a reference point for other articles that will take a more in-depth look at each function.

G1000 Familiarisation

The G1000 is and integrated flight control system that presents flight instrumentation, navigation, position and, communication information to the pilot through two displays. As you look at the cockpit we have the Primary Flight Display (PFD) on the left and the Multi Function Display (MFD) on the right. In between the two display units there is the Audio Panel.

PFD / MFD Controls

The control functions for the PFD and the MFD are the same.

  1. Nav Volume Knob – Controls the NAV audio level.
  2. Nav Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
  3. Dual Nav Knob – Tunes the standby NAV frequency. The large knob tunes MHz and the small knob kHz.
  4. Heading Knob – Press to synchronize the current heading. Turn to adjust the heading bug.
  5. Joystick – Changes the map range. When pushed, it is used to pan across the map.
  6. CRS/BARO Knob – The large knob sets the barometric pressure, the small knob adjusts the course.
  7. Dual COM Knob – Tunes the standby COM frequency. The large knob tunes MHz and the small knob kHz.
  8. COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
  9. COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio level
  10. Direct-to Key – This allows us to enter a waypoint and travel a direct course to the chosen destination.
  11. FPL Key – Display the Active Flight Plan Page
  12. CLR Key – Ereases information or cancel an entry.
  13. Dual FMS Knob – Press to turn on/off the selection cursor.
    Data Entry: With the cursor on (blue flashing) turn to enter data into the field.
    Scrolling: When the data is too long for the window, you can scroll by turning the large knob.
    Page Selection: Turn the knob on the MFD to select the page view. The large knob selects a page group, the small knob selects an item from the page group.
  14. MENU Key – Displays a list of available options.
  1. PROC Key – Selects IFR departures (DPs), approaches (STARs) and, arrivals (IARs) from the flight plan.
  2. ENT Key – Accepts a menu selection or data entry.
  3. Dual ALT Knob – Sets the altitude in the blue box above the altimeter. The large knob selects thousands (500M for metric) and the small knob selects hundreds (50m for metric).
  4. AP Key – Engages/disengages the AutoPilot.
  5. HDG Key – Selects/deselect Heading Select Mode.
  6. NAV Key – Selects/deselect Navigation Mode.
  7. APR Key – Selects/deselect Approach Mode.
  8. VS Key – Selects/deselect Vertical Speed Mode.
  9. FLC Key – Selects/deselect Flight Level Change Mode.
  10. FD Key – Activates/deactivates the flight director.
  11. ALT Key – Selects/deselect Altitude Hold Mode.
  12. VNV Key – Selects/deselect Vertical Navigation Mode.
  13. BC Key – Selects/deselect Back Course Mode.
  14. 29. NOSE UP/NOSE DN Keys – Controls the pitch for Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change.

Flight Instruments

The PFD main display shows flight instruments as detailed below.

  1. Nav Frequency
  2. Airspeed Indicator
  3. True Airspeed
  4. Current Heading
  5. Turn Rate Indicator
  6. Heading Bug
  7. Outside Air Temperature
  8. Softkeys
  9. System Time
  10. Transponder Data Box
  1. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
  2. Barometric Altimeter Setting
  3. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
  4. Reference Altitude Bug
  5. Altimeter
  6. Reference Altitude
  7. COM Frequency Box
  8. Navigation Status Box
  9. Slide/Skid Indicator
  10. Attitude Indicator

Tsum Tsum Beginner Guide

This guide is for people just starting to play the Japanese version of Disney Tsum Tsum. I will recommend an efficient strategy so you can level up and gain new Tsum Tsum.

Play The Tutorial

It may seem obvious but the first step is to play through the tutorial. After completing the tutorial you will receive the ‘first play prize’. Think of it as a little helper to get you on your way in the game. Click the envelope icon on the top right to receive your prize. It consists of:

  • 1 Premium Ticket
  • 4 Happiness Tickets
  • 21 Rubies
  • 10 Hearts
  • 24000 Coins
  • Mickey Tsum

Use the Tickets

We can pick up some new Tsums with the tickets we just received so go ahead and use them.

Coloring Missions

The coloring missions are set for beginners and provide a good introduction to playing events. There are 10 coloring cards to complete and after completing card 4 you will receive the Gadget Tsum (ガジェット)

Gadget Tsum will also be awarded for completing card 6 and 7. This will increase her skill level to 3, which is the maximum. At level 3 skill she will earn around 1500 coins on average so we should use her as much as possible when playing at the beginning. Clear the next 3 cards to complete the coloring missions and receive 2 more premium tickets and a happiness ticket.

Bingo

Bingo missions come in the form of bingo cards with 25 numbered squares. Each square has a specific task which you need to complete to fill in the square. Once you have completed all squares, the card is complete and you will receive the prize. The number 1 square on each card is filled automatically.

There are currently 26 Bingo cards to complete and the first is available to play when you reach level 5.

Clearing Bingo Card 1

Please have a look at our https://jp-game.com/wiki/mission-bingo-card-1-translation/ page. You can find details of each mission and recommended tsums for use. Hopefully, you can clear the card quickly using our guide.